Preventive castration in cattle

Preventive casketing in cattle is one of the main ways to prevent hoof disease. But, to perform it correctly, it is necessary to observe some steps so that the problem does not worsen, worsening the animal’s state.

This is because one of the main reasons for the early disposal of animals is foot problems. That is why preventive castration is essential, and doing it regularly provides more health to your herd. Even more, it allows farmers to increase their profitability. After all, acting preventively costs much less than treating the injury after it has occurred.

Although the procedure is essential, many producers still doubt the ideal moment to carry out preventive wasting. You also have? Continue reading this article that we will explain to you!

What is the best time to perform preventive casquing?

The best period to perform the procedure is at the end of lactation and the beginning of the driest period. In this phase, the animal is taken to a dry place and separated from the herd, which will contribute to the recovery of its hoof.

It is essential to perform casquagem during this period. If performed on lactating cows, it will remove the most resistant layer of the hoof and make the animal more susceptible to new injuries. In short, follow these rules:

– Wait for at least 80 to 100 days after delivery

– Do the procedure invariably in the drying period

– Perform preventive wheezing at least twice a year

The preventive trimming and actions to improve nutrition, comfort, quality and hygiene of the floor prevent some cattle hooves’ diseases. But, you need to take action at the first signs of the conditions, do you want to know which ones? We will deal with this subject below.

Main signs of hoof disease in cattle

There are numerous changes in the hooves of cattle. For example, excessive growth, wounds, abnormal wear, and tear. These problems create stress for the animal, decreasing food intake, losing weight, and reducing milk production. In other words, it generates losses for you, the rural producer.

Thus, you must pay attention to the first signs of disease, among the main ones we can highlight:

– Claudication

– Limp

– Reluctance in locomotion

– Deformation of the affected hooves

– Inability to stay in the station

The major hoof diseases are laminitis, sole ulcer, white line disease, digital dermatitis, heel erosion, interdigital hyperplasia, pododermatitis, and hoof rot.

After reading this far, you must be wondering how to prevent this problem. Follow in the next topic, the primary care to leave your flock free from this type of illness.

Prevention is essential to prevent hoof disease.

As the causes of diseases in cattle hooves are multifactorial, it is essential to act with prevention. That is, adopting preventive and curative practices can bring excellent results to your business, a rural producer.

Know some precautions that can prevent hoof diseases:

– Provide a balanced and balanced diet

– Provide your flock with comfort and well-being

– Provide animals with a clean, sanitized environment with a dry floor

Learn more about the food management of dairy cows in transition

dairy cows in transition

Feeding dairy cows in transition is extremely important and advantageous. Among its many benefits are: achieving satisfactory production rates, good health and well-being, good milk production, or even preventing the animal’s death. 

The main intention of the control or feeding management of dairy cows is to meet the nutritional requirements at different production stages. Thus, act to prevent the excess or shortage of nutrients and avoid various problems and economic losses.  

But after all, do you know the transition period in the dairy cow and the importance of correct food management? This article will explain all of this and give tips on how the management should be done to obtain better results. Check out!

The transition period in the dairy cow

The dairy cow’s transition period consists of the interval between three weeks before and three weeks after calving. 

Several physiological, anatomical, metabolic, nutritional, and behavioral changes occur during this period, which prepare the cow for calving and lactation. 

How to feed dairy cows in transition

The first step in developing the cow’s food management in a transition period is to be aware of the animal’s nutritional requirements during each stage.

 Due to the change in the cow’s metabolic and physiological state, the intake of nutrients or dry matter usually decreases from the 20th day before delivery. However, during the transition, and especially in the pre-delivery period, it is essential to use techniques to maximize dry matter intake.

Therefore, it is up to responsible professionals to look for ways to improve food management by providing adequate access to food. The indication is to formulate a diet with a high density of protein and energy in the pre-delivery period.

Basic recommendations

The energy density recommendation is 1.25 Mcal ELL/kg MS (mega-calorie of net energy per liter of milk/kilo of dry matter) in the dry season. This value should increase to 1.62 Mcal ELL/kg MS in the final stage of pregnancy. 

To obtain this high energy density, the professional needs to invest in rapidly fermentable carbohydrates.

On the other hand, crude protein should be kept at a minimum level of 12% during the dry period to improve ruminal functioning and fiber digestion. Also, it will help the growth of the cow, fetus, and mammary glands.

The nutritional balance must also be associated with the animal’s physiology at birth. You should also be concerned with the ruminal flora and the pharmacological effects of certain nutrients in preventing metabolic and reproductive disorders or disorders.

Even during pre-delivery, it is essential to avoid excessive calorie intake to maintain the animal’s body condition and reduce fatty liver and ketosis. Choline is one of the alternatives used to help prevent weight gain.

It is also necessary to prevent hypocalcemia since close to calving; there is a decrease in the cow’s calcium levels. An alternative would be to invest in acidogenic or anionic diets.

In the postpartum period, it is essential to bet on diets that do not limit the intake of dry pasta, optimize milk production, and recover the cow’s body condition.

Another essential point that should not be overlooked is the supply of fresh, potable, and abundant water, in addition to pleasant environmental conditions to ensure the animals’ thermal comfort.

Importance of correct food management

During the transition, it is necessary to carry out adequate food management to ensure good preparation and development of the cow and the fetus. Also, avoid the occurrence of disorders that may occur before or after delivery. 

As the correct handling, it is possible to provide the animal with the maintenance and adequate corporal growth to guarantee the fetus’s growth, uterus, attachments, and the mammary gland. All of this will be essential to prepare the cow for significant changes during the transition. 

In addition to providing the dairy cow’s welfare, food management in the transition period is essential to prevent the onset of disease and prevent economic losses. However, to ensure its efficiency, food control must be established by a specialized and experienced professional.

Want to learn how to have a more profitable dairy production? Then invest in a specialization course like the CENVA Dairy Graduate. An online course with interactive debates that will give you complete knowledge in the area, complement your curriculum, and add even more value to your career.

In this course, you will find everything about dairy farming with solutions that will help you overcome the daily challenges of producing quality milk, increase profitability, and become a reference professional in the dairy industry. 

What are Good Agricultural Practices (BPAs) and how to apply them in food production?

good agricultural practices

Acceptable Agricultural Practices or BPAs can be understood as management practices, systemic and planned, within the property. The main objective is safe food production in social, economic, and environmental spheres.

These joint actions positively differentiate the product delivered to the final consumer. This is configured as a mechanism to achieve the sustainability of the system.

The proper use of this tool requires the training of technicians, producers, and employees to understand that isolated actions in each area of ​​the agricultural farm are a fundamental part of the results of the entire production complex.

Want to understand more about this subject? Read on! 

But then, what are the Good Agricultural Practices?

Acceptable Agricultural Practices are divided between fundamental and complementary. The fundamental ones have a direct influence on the final quality of the product, and the other actions are defined as complementary.

Thus, sanitary management practices, food management, and proper food storage from herds are considered essential for the productive maintenance of animals.

Water: food and input

In the case of meat and milk production, proper storage and refrigeration of the products is essential. Also, the provision of good quality water for cleaning and cleaning equipment.

A dairy cow consumes between 40 and 120 liters of water per day, which can vary according to environmental factors (temperature, humidity, etc.) and physiological (milk production, health, age, etc.). However, this consumption is highly influenced by the quality of the water offered; saline waters, for example, limit consumption.

When sanitized with low-quality water, the equipment and utensils that come into contact with the generated food can be vehicles of pathogens and other contaminants. They can also decrease the efficiency of the disinfectants used, which culminates in interference in the qualitative characteristics of milk and meat.

Animal welfare and rational management

Another point of coverage of Good Practices related to animal welfare and directly interfering in production by animals, whether dairy or beef cattle, is a subject of significant influence on the visibility of the activity by consumers. Thus, animal welfare maintenance involves the “five freedoms”: free from hunger, thirst, and malnutrition; free from discomfort; free from pain, injury, and disease; free from fear and free for regular expression of their animal behavior.

For that, owners, technicians, and collaborators must be aligned to maintain good human-animal relationships. They are also passing through the constant training of managers and employees of the rural property. In this sense, it is shown that the constant search for the improvement of the workforce is an essential tool for the development and increase of productivity of rural companies.

Environmental risk management

The incorrect handling of nutrients, effluents, and other residues in production can cause serious environmental contamination problems. Therefore, daily actions related to the mitigation of these negative impacts should be adopted. Some examples mentioned are the proper packaging of effluents, analysis of organic compounds from animal waste before application to crops, and separation of household waste for recycling.

Also, the use, storage, and disposal of chemical products (pesticides, veterinary drugs, etc.) must follow established rules, remembering to always use authorized products for the desired purpose.

Technical and financial management are also acceptable agricultural practices

Given the above, all actions within the BPAs seek, in a way, to ensure the financial viability of the farm. Thus, routine notes on the use of inputs, health, birth, and reproduction of animals (births, companions, inseminations, etc.) and expense receipts are also considered within the context of Good Practices.

How to achieve BPAs?

The adoption of Good Agricultural Practices often occurs naturally on the property. Still, in some cases, it needs to be qualified for technical guidance, and for that, there must be interest from them. Therefore, participation in courses that address the concepts of acceptable practices is essential so that it is possible to achieve sustainable rural development through the joint work of producers and technicians. 

Thus, it becomes possible to manage the property so that it is within society’s legal requirements and expectations. Do you want to know more about BPAs and become an expert in Dairy Cattle?

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